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present perfect

Present perfect simple

Present perfect simple

present perfect simple

Present perfect simple tense examples:
I have cleaned my shoes.
He has gone to America.
I have travelled through Asia, but I haven’t been to Africa.

Uses of the present perfect simple:

1. To talk about something completed some time in the (recent) past that has an effect now
2. To talk about an experience we have had in our lives.

Present perfect simple form:

have / has + [3rd form of the verb / past participle]

 

 

Present perfect simple use #1:

We can use present perfect simple to talk about something completed in the past that has an effect now.

  • I have cleaned my shoes.

This tells us that:

a) the speaker cleaned his/her shoes in the past
b) that there is a present effect of this – probably that they are now clean.

  • I haven’t finished my homework!

NOTE: you cannot use present perfect simple with a specific time in the past – you have to use past simple.

e.g. I didn’t finish my homework last night. NOT  I haven’t finished my homework last night.

Present perfect simple use #2:

We can use present perfect simple to talk about an experience we have had in our lives.

Have you ever visited New Zealand?”
“No, I haven’t” been there yet. I have been to Australia though!

“I have eaten tofu but I have never eaten crocodile meat”

NOTE:

American English does not use this form of the present perfect. In American English, the past simple is used instead.

“Have you ever visited New Zealand?” (British English)
“Did you ever visit New Zealand?” (American English)

‘Ever’, ‘never’, ‘yet’ with present perfect simple

Have you ever…..?

Used for questions about experience up to now.

Example:

  • Have you ever taken an over night train?
  • Has he ever met your wife?

Have you…… yet?

Used for questions  and negative sentences about experience up to now.

  • Have you seen that new film yet?
  • I haven’t asked him yet.

NOT: Have you ever visited New York yet.

Never

Used for negative sentences about experience up to now.

I have never climbed a mountain.

I have never spoken to her.

NOT: I have never drunk champagne yet.

 

past_continuous

Past continuous tense

Past continuous

past_continuousThe past continuous is also known as the past progressive tense. When you have read this information page, try the past continuous exercises.

Example:

  • He was washing his hands when the phone rang.
  • We were singing and they were dancing all night.

Past continuous form:

was / were + [verb -to] + ing

Uses of past continuous:

1. To talk about an activity in progress at a particular time in the past
2. To talk about two actions happening at the same time in the past
3. To talk about a longer activity that was interrupted by a shorter activity
4. To give a background to an event

 

Past continuous use #1:

To talk about an activity in progress at a particular time in the past

  • This time last week, I was relaxing on the beach.

The particular time is ‘this time last week’, and we are referring to an activity (relaxing).

Past continuous use #2:

To talk about two actions happening at the same time in the past

  • Last night I was cooking dinner while my friends were watching television.

Using was cooking and were watching tells the listenener that both actions were happening at the same time.


Past continuous use #3:

To talk about a longer activity that was interrupted by a shorter activity

  • I was reading a book when the doorbell rang.

The longer activity = ‘was reading a book’
The interruption or shorter activity = ‘the doorbell rang

We would not say:

I was reading a book when the doorbell was ringing.

This would mean that the two actions were happening together over the same length of time.


Past continuous use #4:

To give a background to an event

  • It was a quiet night. The moon was shining and the wind was blowing gently.

In this example, you are simply describing the background of what was happening that night.

 

Now try the past continuous exercises.

present_continuous

Present continuous (present progressive)

Present continuous

This is also known as the present progressive

present_continuousIn English grammar, the present continuous is used to talk about something that is happening now or around now. Here are some examples:

  • I am studying English grammar now.
  • They are visiting friends at the moment.
  • He is playing football.

The present continuous can also be used to talk about something you are not doing now.

  • I am not sleeping right now.
  • They are not working today. They have the day off.
  • She isn’t watching the TV, she’s playing a computer game.

The present continuous verb can change when you talk about other people.

Positive + Negative –
I am working am not / I’m not working.
You are working are not / aren’t working.
We are working are not / aren’t working.
He is working is not / isn’t working.
She is working is not / isn’t working.
It is working is not / isn’t working.
They are working are not / aren’t working.

The present continuous verb changes when you ask questions.

Am I working?
Are you working?
Are we working?
Is he working?
Is she working?
Is it working?
Are they working?

 

Some verbs cannot be used in the present continuous form.

For example:

I like Coca-Cola Correct

I am liking Coca-Cola Incorrect

Click here for more information about dynamic and stative verbs

 

Present continuous for future

We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about arrangements we make with other people that are planned and will happen in the future.

For example:

I am meeting David next week.

My company is moving to a new office next year.

They are flying to Thailand tomorrow.

……………..

Are you having dinner with Louise tomorrow?

Is your mother visiting you next week?

Are they coming to the party on Saturday?

Click here to try the present continuous exercises.

past_simple

Past simple tense

Past simple

past_simpleIn English grammar, the past simple is used to talk about finished events or actions in the past. Here are some example sentences including regular past simple verbs:

  • I worked last Monday.
  • They studied for an English test last week.
  • She smiled when she saw him.

 

The past simple can also be used to talk about something you did not do.

  • I didn’t work last weekend.
  • He didn’t do his homework.
  • You didn’t tell me!

The past simple verb doesn’t change when you talk about other people.

Positive + Negative –
I worked didn’t work.
You worked didn’t work.
We worked didn’t work.
He worked didn’t work.
She worked didn’t work.
It worked didn’t work.
They worked didn’t work.

The past simple verb doesn’t change when you ask questions.

Did I work?
Did you work?
Did we work?
Did he work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
Did they work?

 

To make the past simple tense form of regular verbs, we add +ed .

Present Past
I work I worked
He works He worked

However, pronunciation of regular past tense tense verbs can change.

For example, ‘He worked’ sounds like ‘He workt’

Base verb
Sounds like /t/
Sounds like /d/
sounds like /id/
Work Worked
Look Looked
Talk Talked
Like Liked
Watch Watched
Laugh Laughed
Wish Wished
Listen Listened
Open Opened
Learn Learned
Change Changed
Climb Climbed
Try Tried
Paint Painted
Want Wanted
End Ended
Decide Decided

Past simple irregular verbs

Irregular verbs don’t follow the rules above. You simply need to learn them.

For example. eat – eated – ate

  • He ate chicken for dinner last night.

Click here to see a list.

Some verbs can be used with a regular or an irregular form.

These include:

  • burn (burned OR burnt)
  • dream (dreamed OR dreamt)
  • learn (learned or learnt)
  • smell (smelled OR smelt)

 

 

at_the_bank

At the bank

At the bank

at_the_bankHere is some useful vocabulary that you can use when you are at the bank:

An account: this is where you would take your money from or put your money into at the bank.

Account number: the number the bank gives you for your account

Interest: the extra money the bank will pay you if you have money in your account

Deposit: to put money into your account at the bank

Withdraw: to take money out of your account at the bank

Exchange: when you want to change money from one country into money from another country

Bank card: the card that you can use in shops to pay for items and also in machines to withdraw money

Bank teller: the person who works behind the counter at the bank

Bank manager: the person that runs the bank

ATM (also called ‘cash machine’): a machine where you can withdraw money from your account using your bank card

ID (also ‘identification’): a document or card with your name and other details printed on it. Your passport or driving licence is often used as ID.

PIN number: Your pin number is the number (normally 4 digits) that you use when you want to withdraw money from an ATM.

Currency: Anything used to buy or sell something is currency. For example, The United States dollar is a currency; the British pound is a currency.

At the bank – example conversation #1

Teller: Good morning. Can I help you?

Customer: Yes please – I would like to open an account here.

Teller. OK. Do you have any ID?

Customer: I have my driving licence – is that enough?

Teller: Well, we need two forms of ID and something with your home address.

Customer: OK, well I also have an electric bill with my name and address on it.

Teller: That’s fine – just give me a few minutes to open your new account.

At the bank – example conversation #2

Teller: Hello. Can I help you?

Customer: Yes please. I’d like to deposit this cheque into my account.

Teller: Certainly. Do you have your account number?

Customer: No, but I do have my bank card – is that enough?

Teller: Yes, that’s fine….OK, that’s all done!

Customer: Thanks!

present_simple

The present simple

The present simple

the_present_simpleIn English grammar, the present simple is used to talk about habits and routines. Here is an example of the present simple in a sentence:

I work on weekdays.

The present simple can also be used to talk about something you don’t do.

I don’t eat meat.

The present simple verb can change if you talk about other people.

Positive + Negative –
I work don’t work.
You work don’t work.
We work don’t work.
He works doesn’t work.
She works doesn’t work.
It works doesn’t work.
They work don’t work.

 


The present simple also changes if you ask questions about other people.

Do I work?
Do you work?
Do we work?
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Do they work?

For he, she or it, the present simple changes:

I miss He misses verb ends in ‘s’ add +es
I fly He flies verbs ends in consonant + ‘y’ add +ies
I wash He washes verb ends in ‘sh’ add +es
I fix He fixes verb ends in ‘x’ add +es
I buzz It buzzes verb ends in ‘z’ add +es

 


Another change that happens with the present simple is with have.

I have a new car. I don’t have a new car. Do I have a new car?
You have a car. You don’t have a new car. Do you have a new car?
We have a car. We don’t have a new car. Do we have a new car?
He has a new car. He doesn’t have a new car. Does he have a new car?
She has a new car. She doesn’t have a new car. Does she have a new car?
It has new tyres. It doesn’t have new tyres. Does it have new tyres?
They have a new car. They don’t have new car. Do they have a new car?

Click here to try the present simple exercises.

introducing-yourself

Introducing yourself in English

Introducing yourself in English

Read the conversation below and practise introducing yourself in English.

introducing-yourself-in-English

John: Hello.
Sarah: Hi. How are you?
John: I’m fine thanks and you?
Sarah: I’m very well. My name is Sarah.
John: My name is John.
Sarah: I’m Sarah. Nice to meet you.
John: Nice to meet you too.

 

Introducing other people

Read the conversation below and practise introducing other people in English.

Sarah: John, this is my friend Helen.
John: Hello Helen. Pleasure to meet you. My name is John.
Helen: Hi John, my name’s Helen. Nice to meet you too.

 

Now practice introducing yourself – what are the missing words from this conversation?

Complete the gaps in the introducing yourself exercise below.

Susan: Hello. _____________ Susan.

David: Hello Susan. I’m David. _____________ meet you.

Susan: And you.

Click here to see the full conversation.

Susan: Hello. My name is Susan.

David: Hello Susan. I’m David. Pleased / Nice meet you.

Susan: And you.

 


Now practice introducing other people – what are the missing words from this conversation?

Complete the introductions below.

David: Helen, _____________ Susan.

Helen: Hello Susan. Lovely to meet you. _____________ Helen.

Susan: Pleasure to meet you, Helen.

Click here to see the full conversation.

David: Helen, this is Susan.

Helen: Hello Susan. Lovely to meet you. My name is Helen.

Susan: Pleasure to meet you, Helen.

 

collocations

Adjective collocations (B2)

ADJECTIVE COLLOCATIONS

English collocations are two words together that equal one meaning- they almost always combine NOUNS or ADJECTIVES together. Some popular collocations have the feeling/meaning of ‘absolutely’ for the first word.

Adjective collocations exercise 1

In the following exercises these kind of collocations are used. Their function is as an adjective.

Exercise 1: Read the sentences, decide on the correct second word in the collocation (which is the main word) and then check at the end.

1. My brother just sits around the house all day and does nothing. He’s so lazy… he’s bone _____!
a) idle b) dead

click here to see the answer

The correct answer is bone idle (meaning extremely lazy)

2. It’s impossible to see anything in here! It’s pitch _____.
a) dark b) night

click here to see the answer

The correct answer is pitch dark (meaning there is no light)

3. I’m going to buy a used car. I can’t afford a brand _____ one.
a) new b) shiny

click here to see the answer

The correct answer is brand new (meaning it’s completely new)

4. Breakfast is ready, where’s Tom? I’ll check- oh dear, I can’t wake him…he’s fast _____!
a) snoring b) asleep

click here to see the answer

The correct answer is fast asleep (meaning sleeping heavily, not easily woken up)

5. Becky usually looks sleepy at breakfast time, but today she looks wide _____.
a) happy b) awake

click here to see the answer

The correct answer is wide awake (meaning there is she’s completely alert)

Adjective collocations exercise 2

Exercise 2: Put a completed, correct collocation from Exercise 1 into each gap in the following dialogue and then check your answer.

A: “Come on, wake up. You’ll be late for work. You really need aalarm clock – your old one is not loud enough!”.

B: “Leave me alone…I wasand you woke me up! It must be only 6.00am…the room is still”.

A: “Wrong! It’s after 7.00. The room’s dark because it’s raining hard outside. Anyway, you should benow so just go and have breakfast”.

B: “Not now thanks, I’m not hungry, just sleepy…I’m going back to bed for a bit longer”.

A: “Oh my goodness, you really are, aren’t you”?!

Show the answers
ANSWERS: 1. brand new 2. fast asleep 3. pitch dark 4. wide awake 5. bone idle

 

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comparatives

Comparative adjective exercises (A1)

Before you take this test, make sure you have read the comparative adjectives page.

Comparative adjective exercisesQuestion #1: Horses are _____ dogs.

A. the faster
B. faster than
C. faster as
D. the faster than

Show answer

The correct answer is B

Question #2: Jack is 1m 85cm tall. Jane is 1m 60cm. Jane is _________ Jack.

A. more shorter than
B. shorter than
C. more short than
D. shortter than

Show answer

The correct answer is B

Question #3: Jon is 80kg. Jane is 70kg. John is _________ Jane.

A. is heavIer than
B. is heavYer than
C. is the heavier than
D. is heavy than

Show answer

The correct answer is A

Question #4: She’s always smiling and laughing – she’s much _________ me.

A. more happier
B. happier
C. happier than
D. more happy

Show answer

The correct answer is C

Question #5: John was stuck in traffic so he arrived ________ Dave.

A. more late than
B. latter than
C. the latter than
D. later than

Show answer

The correct answer is D

Question #6: Jane runs her own business and travels around the world. Joe doesn’t have a job. Jane is _________ than Joe.

A. more success than
B. more successful than
C. more successful of
D. successfuller than

Show answer

The correct answer is B

Question #7: This is a very old building. I want to live somewhere _________.

A. moderner than
B. more modern
C. more modern than
D. moderner

Show answer

The correct answer is B

Question #8: Which of these is INCORRECT?

A. taller than
B. widder than
C. faster than
D. bigger than

Show answer

The correct answer is B