Category Archives: Grammar

verbs_irregular

Irregular verbs list

Irregular verbs list

irregular_verbs_listIrregular verbs, as the name suggests, don’t follow a pattern. You simply need to learn them. In this lesson you will find an irregular verbs list. We suggest you try to learn a few each each day.

But before we look at an irregular verbs list, we need to think about how to form regular verbs. English verbs often end in +ed or +d when used in the past tense or participle form.

For example:

work – worked / live – lived

These are regular verbs.

Below you will find an irregular verbs list. Don’t try to learn them all at once! Go through the irregular verbs list until you get ten that you don’t know, then practice.

Irregular verbs list

Verb Simple Past Past Participle
A
arise arose arisen
awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken
B
be was, were been
bear bore born / borne
beat beat beaten / beat
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burned / burnt burned / burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
C
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
D
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dove / dived dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt dreamed / dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt / dwelled dwelt / dwelled
E
eat ate eaten
F
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forego forewent foregone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
G
get got got / gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
H
handwrite handwrote handwritten
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hew hewed hewn / hewed
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
I
inbreed inbred inbred
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input / inputted input / inputted
interbreed interbred interbred
interweave interwove / interweaved interwoven / interweaved
interwind interwound interwound
J
K
keep kept kept
kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
know knew known
L
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned / leant leaned / leant
leap leaped / leapt leaped / leapt
learn learned / learnt learned / learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie (ie ‘to lie down’) lay lain
lie (ie ‘to tell a lie’) lied lied
light lit / lighted lit / lighted
lose lost lost
M
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mow mowed mowed / mown
N
O
P
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proven / proved
put put put
Q
quit quit quit
R
read read (pronounced red) read (pronounced red)
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
S
saw sawed sawed / sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn / sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved / shaven
shear sheared sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shined / shone shined / shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown / showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sight-read sight-read sight-read
sing sang sung
sink sank / sunk sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelled / smelt smelled / smelt
sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
sow sowed sown / sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spell spelled / spelt spelled / spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt
spin spun spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spoil spoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang / sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stunk / stank stunk
strew strewed strewn
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck / stricken
strive strove / strived striven / strived
sunburn sunburned / sunburnt sunburned / sunburnt
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen / swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
T
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden / trod
U
understand understood understood
upset upset upset
V
W
wake woke / waked woken / waked
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
wed wed wed
weep wept wept
wet wet wet
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
X
Y
Z
modal_verbs

Modal verbs (modal auxiliary verbs)

Modal verbs

modal_verbsModal verbs (also called modal auxiliary verbs, or modals) are used with the infinitive form of the main verb (minus -to) to add additional layers of meaning to a sentence.

Modal verbs are also called modal auxiliary verbs, or modals.

Here are some examples:

  • I can play the piano.
  • She may know his name.
  • I must try harder.

Examples of modal verbs

The following are all modal verbs:

  • can
  • could
  • may
  • might
  • must
  • shall
  • should
  • will
  • would
  • would rather
  • ought to

Modal verbs can refer to:

  • ability – I can drive a car.
  • probability – I might go to the party later.
  • deduction – That must be the man she was talking about, he fits the description she gave me.
  • obligation – I have to go to the meeting or my boss will be annoyed.
  • necessity – I must leave early today.
  • prohibition – You cannot smoke in here.
  • permission – May I leave early?
  • instructions and requests – Could you help me?
  • suggestions – We could go to the cinema to see that new movie this evening.
  • advice – You ought to notify them straight away and sort out the problem.
  • recommendation – You should watch the film – it’s fantastic!
  • preference – I would rather finish this before we go.
  • promise – I will definitely call you first thing in the morning. (see future simple lesson)
  • prediction – You will love it there! (see future simple lesson)
can (positive), can’t (negative), could (past positive) couldn’t (past negative)
Example sentences using modal verbs for ability
  • I can sing, but I can’t dance.
  • I could swim when I was six, but I couldn’t ride a horse.

You can use different modal verbs to talk about probability (deduction). The difference in meaning is how certain you are about what you are talking about.

  • will (very certain)
  • must (expressing opinion you are quite sure about)
  • should (expressing opinion you are quite sure about)
  • might (possible)
  • could (possible)
  • may (possible)
  • can’t (expressing opinion you are quite sure about)
  • won’t (very certain)
Example sentences using modal verbs for probability (deduction)
  • She will be at work now, she never finishes before 6pm.
  • He must be stuck in traffic, the road we so busy when I was coming home.
  • I should finish this soon, I don’t have too much left to do.
  • He might call later if he remembers your birthday.
  • He could be out with his friends, I’m not sure where he is.
  • She may come later, I’m not sure what her plans are.
  • It can’t be John over there. It looks like him, but I’m sure John is overseas at the moment.
  • I won’t finish the report today, there have been too many interruptions and I have to leave soon.

Modal verbs – obligation (necessity)

You can use the modal verbs ‘have to‘, ‘must‘ ‘ought to‘, ‘should‘ to talk about obligation.

Modal verbs ‘have to‘ and ‘must‘ talk about necessity / strong obligation.

Modal verbs ‘ought to‘ and ‘should‘ talk about lower level of obligation.

You use ‘have to‘ when the obligation comes from someone else – e.g. it’s a law or a rule.

  • In most countries you have to wear a seatbelt when travelling in a car.

COMPARE:

  • Drivers ought to / should drive slower in wet weather.

Obligation is not as strong as the legal requirements is to drive to the speed limit but driving carefully is still a moral obligation for motorists on the road.

Must‘ is used when the obligation comes from the person speaking.

  • I must stop smoking.

You can use ‘don’t have to‘ when there is no obligation.

  • College students don’t have to wear a uniform. (there is no rule for them to wear a uniform).

BE CAREFUL – you cannot use must not to show no obligation. This has a different meaning. It means ‘cannot, not allowed to, no permission to’.

For example:

‘You mustn’t interrupt when someone is talking dear.’ the mother told her son.  (the child is not allowed to interrupt other people).

To talk about obligation in the past, use ‘had to‘.

  • My grandfather had to walk four miles to school everyday when he was a child.

Modal verbs – prohibition

Modal verbs ‘must not‘ (mustn’t) and ‘cannot‘ (can’t) are used to talk about prohibition. Prohibition means something cannot happen, it is not allowed, there is no permission.

Must not‘ – see example in the previous section. Mustn’t is more commonly used when the prohibition comes from the speaker.

Another example is:

  • “You mustn’t sit on the desks in my classroom.” said the teacher.

Cannot‘ – more commonly used when the prohibition comes from someone else, e.g. a rule or a law.

Example:

  • Employees cannot use Facebook during office hours.

To talk about prohibition in the past, use ‘could not‘.

  • Women could not vote in the USA until 1920.

Modal verbs – permission

Modal verbs ‘can‘, ‘may‘ and ‘could‘ are used to ask someone for, or to give permission (you want to be allowed to do something, or you are allowing someone to do something).

  • Can I go home now?
  • You can borrow my jacket if you’re cold.
  • Could I ask you a question?

Note: ‘could‘ can be used to ask for permission. It is more formal / more polite than ‘can‘.

  • May I use your telephone?
  • You may now kiss the bride.

Note: ‘may‘ can be used to ask for and to give permission. It is more formal / more polite than ‘can‘.

 

Modal verbs – instructions and requests

Modal verbs ‘can‘, ‘will‘, ‘could‘ and ‘would‘ are used to ask someone, or tell someone to do something.

  • Can you make me a coffee, please?
  • Will you call me a taxi, please?
  • Could you take this luggage to my room, please?
  • Would you ask him a question for me?

Note: ‘would‘ and ‘could‘ are more polite than ‘can‘ or ‘will‘. When asking or instructing someone to do something, you should also say ‘please’.

Modal verbs ‘should‘ and ‘ought to‘ are used to give suggestions, advice and recommendations.

  • We should go out for dinner next week. (suggestion)
  • We ought to go out for dinner next week. (suggestion)
  • You should inform the boss straight away. (advice)
  • You ought to inform the boss straight away. (advice)
  • You should stay at the Apollo Hotel, it’s amazing! (recommendation)
  • You ought to stay at the Apollo Hotel, it’s amazing! (recommendation)

Could‘ is also used to make suggestions.

  • We could meet up at 8pm, does that suit you? (suggestion)

We also use modal verbs ‘will‘ and ‘would‘ in conditional sentences to give advice.

A commonly used second conditional phrase is: “If I were you, I would……”

  • If I were you, I would tell the boss straight away. (advice)

OR

  • The boss will help you, if you tell him. (first conditional)
  • The boss would help you, if you told him. (second conditional)

You can also use ‘must‘ to give advice. ‘Must‘ is stronger than ‘should‘ or ‘ought to‘.

A speaker who uses ‘must‘ thinks what they are suggesting, advising or recommending is so important (it is like an obligation) for the person to do that.

For example:

  • You must get those tyres on your car changed. They are so dangerous!

 

Would rather‘ is used to talk about preference.

  • I would rather work late tonight. I can have tomorrow morning off then.

If you are comparing options, you use ‘would rather…….. than….’

  • I would rather work late tonight, than have to work tomorrow morning.

Use would rather not (negative form) to talk about something you don’t want to do.

  • I would rather not work tomorrow morning.
so_and_such

So and such (for emphasis)

So and such

so_and_such‘So’ and ‘such’ are often used incorrectly in English.

Both so and such are used to ‘give emphasis’ – this means to show that something is ‘extreme’ or ‘more than’. For example –

The concert was so good! It was such a good concert!

In both cases, it wasn’t simply a ‘good’ concert, it was more than that.

So and such rule #1:

The main difference between so and such is that you do not use a noun after ‘so’.

  • The concert was so good! Correct This is correct

It was so a good concert Incorrect You cannot say this

 

So and such rule #2:

After such, you need a noun.

  • It was such a good concert Correct This is correct

It was such good Incorrect You cannot say this

So and such rule # 3:

The two rules for so and such above can be combined with ‘that’ to talk about the results of something.

FACT = The concert was so loud. RESULT = our ears hurt.

  • The concert was so loud that our ears hurt.  Correct This is correct

The concert was such loud that our ears hurtIncorrect You cannot say this

  • It was such a loud concert that our ears hurt.  Correct This is correct

So and such rule #4:

So can also be followed by an adverb. NOTE: This is used to make a short comment or exclamation about something.

  • He eats so quickly!  Correct  This is correct

He eats such quickly!  Incorrect  You cannot say this

  • She sings so beautifully!  Correct  This is correct

She sings such beautifully!  Incorrect  You cannot say this

  • He speaks so eloquently.  Correct  This is correct

He speaks such eloquently.  Incorrect  You cannot say this

countable_uncountable

Countable and uncountable nouns

Countable and uncountable nouns

countable_and_uncountable_nounsThe English language has different rules about countable and uncountable nouns than some other languages. Basic rules about countable and uncountable nouns are –

  • A countable noun can be counted (e.g. one apple, two apples).
  • An uncountable noun cannot be counted (e.g. sugar – it’s hard to ‘count’ the number of small sugar grains).

Abstract nouns (things you cannot can’t feel, touch, see, hear, or taste) are usually uncountable too. For example: knowledge, leisure.

Here are some examples of countable and uncountable nouns.

There are more examples of uncountable and uncountable nouns in the picture too.

Countable nouns:

car, table, pencil, computer

Uncountable nouns:

water, bread, milk, information, education

When you learn new words in English, it is important to know whether the nouns you are learning are countable or uncountable nouns because the words and the grammar you use in sentences are different.

Remember that the rules in English might be different to the rules about countable and uncountable nouns in your own language!

Countable and uncountable nouns – ‘a‘ or ‘an‘ and making plurals

1. Use a or an before a single countable noun.

Single countable noun examples:

  • a car
  • an apple

2. Don’t use a or an before an uncountable noun

Uncountable noun examples:

  • water (not a water),
  • information (not an information)

3. Add +s or +es after more than one countable noun (plural countable nouns).

Plural countable noun examples:

  • two cars
  • five potatoes

Remember though that some nouns are irregular – you don’t add ‘s’ or ‘es’ when you make them plural and you just need to learn them! e.g. child / children, man / men, tooth / teeth etc.

4. Don’t add +s or +es after an uncountable noun (they have no plural)

Uncountable noun examples:

  • milk (not milks)
  • leisure (not leisures)

Countable and uncountable nouns – ‘some’ and ‘no’

1. Use some when talking about more than one countable noun and with uncountable nouns in positive sentences.

For example:

  • There are some cars parked on the street. (there is more than one car on the street)
  • There is some milk in the fridge. (there is milk in the fridge)

Also note the differences is grammar. Remember uncountable nouns have no plural form so in the example above ‘milk’ takes the ‘is’ form of the verb ‘to be’.

There are some cars. (NOT There is some cars or There are some car)

There is some milk. (NOT There are some milk or There is some milks)

2. The opposite of ‘some‘ is ‘none‘. You can use ‘no‘ in a ‘positive’ sentence structure to say that something is not present.

For example:

  • There are no cars parked on the street. (there zero cars on the street)
  • There is no milk in the fridge. (milk is not in the fridge)

Also note the differences is grammar. Remember uncountable nouns have no plural form so in the example above ‘milk’ takes the ‘is’ form of the verb ‘to be’.

There are no cars. (NOT There is no cars or There are no car)

There is some milk. (NOT There are no milk or There is no milks)

Countable and uncountable nouns rule – ‘any

Use any when talking about more than one countable noun and with uncountable nouns in negative sentences and in questions.

  • There aren’t any books about that topic at the library.
  • Are there any books about that topic at the library?
  • There isn’t any information about that topic at the library.
  • Is there any information about that topic at the library?

Also note the differences is grammar. Remember uncountable nouns have no plural form so in the example above ‘information’ takes the ‘is’ form of the verb ‘to be’.

There aren’t any books. (NOT There aren’t some books or There isn’t no books)

Are there any books? (NOT Is there some books? or Are there any book?)

There isn’t any information. (NOT There isn’t no information or There aren’t any information)

Is there any information? (NOT Is there some informations? or Are there any information?)

Countable and uncountable nouns rule – ‘many’ and ‘much’

Use many when talking about more than one countable noun in negative sentences and in questions.

Use much when talking about uncountable nouns in negative sentences and in questions.

Much and many follow the same rules as ‘any‘ but the meaning is different.

Can you see the difference? Look at the examples below.

1. Countable nouns – ‘any‘ and ‘many

  • There aren’t any books about that topic at the library. (there are zero books on the topic)
  • There aren’t many books about that topic at the library. (there are a small number of books on the topic)
  • Are there any books about that topic at the library? (the speaker wants to know if the library has books on the topic)
  • Are there many books about that topic at the library? (the speaker wants to to know the quantity of books on the topic at the library)

2. Countable nouns – ‘any‘ and ‘much

  • There isn’t any information about that topic at the library. (there is zero information on the topic)
  • There isn’t much information about that topic at the library. (there is a small amount of information on the topic)
  • Is there any information about that topic at the library? (the speaker wants to know if the library has information on the topic)
  • Is there much information about that topic at the library? (the speaker wants to to know the quantity of information on the topic)

Also note the differences is grammar. Remember uncountable nouns have no plural form so in the example above ‘information’ takes the ‘is’ form of the verb ‘to be’.

There aren’t many books. (NOT There aren’t much books or There isn’t many books)

Are there many books? (NOT Is there many books? or Are there much books?)

There isn’t much information. (NOT There isn’t many information or There aren’t much information)

Is there much information? (NOT Is there many information? or Is there much informations?)

 

Countable and uncountable nouns –  a lot of (lots of), too many, too much

A lot of (lots of), too many and too much can be used with countable and uncountable nouns to talk about quantity (bigger amounts).

Here are some rules and information about when to use them and the differences in meaning.

1. Use a lot of (lots of) and too many when talking about plural countable nouns. Be careful as the meanings are different!

Compare these examples:

  • There were some people at the party. (There was more than one person at the party)
  • There were a lot of people at the party. (There were a large number of people at the party)
  • There were lots of people at the party. (There were a large number of people at the party)

Note: Too many describes the quantity in a negative way.

  • There were too many people at the party (negative – the speaker thinks the party was so crowded they didn’t enjoy it)

2. Use a lot of (lots of) and too much when talking about uncountable nouns. Be careful as the meanings are different!

Compare these examples:

  • The manager gave his staff some information to read before the meeting. (The staff had something to read)
  • The manager gave his staff a lot of information to read before the meeting. (The staff had a large amount of information to read)
  • The manager gave his staff lots of information to read before the meeting. (The staff had a large amount of information to read)

Note: Too much describes the quantity in a negative way.

  • The manager gave his staff too much information to read before the meeting. (negative – the speaker thinks the boss was treating his staff unfairly)

Countable and uncountable nouns (a) few, (a) little

Few, a few, little, and a little can be used with countable and uncountable nouns to talk about quantity (smaller amounts).

Here are some rules and information about when to use them and the differences in meaning.

1. Use few or a few when talking about plural countable nouns.

Examples:

  • There were a few people waiting in the queue. (There were a small number of people in the queue)
  • There were few people waiting in the queue. (There were a very small number of people)

Note: Few describes the quantity in a negative way.

  • He has a few friends (neutral)
  • He has few friends (negative – the speaker probably thinks the person doesn’t have enough friends)

2. Use little or a little when talking about uncountable nouns.

Examples:

I have a little money left. (I have a small amount of money)

I have little money left. (My money is almost all gone)

Examples:

Note: Little describes the quantity in a negative way.

  • He has a little understanding of the subject. (neutral)
  • He has little understanding of the subject. (negative – the speaker thinks the person doesn’t have enough knowledge about about the subject)

 

Click here to try the countable and uncountable noun exercises.

prepositions_of_time

Prepositions of time (A1)

Prepositions of time (A1)

prepositions_of_timePrepositions of time (like all prepositions) can be one of the hardest parts of English to use correctly.

This is because the rules are often quite difficult and there are lots of exceptions!

In this lesson, we are looking at the following prepositions of time:

  • at
  • in
  • on

Here are some example sentences using prepositions of time:

  • I’m going camping at the weekend.
  • They will be here in 5 minutes
  • School starts on the Monday.

Prepositions of time – ‘at

Here are the rules for using the preposition ‘at‘.

Rule #1:

For a clock time (at 5 p.m., at quarter to 12)

Example: I finish work at 5.30 p.m.

Rule #2:

For a particular time (at lunch time, at sunset)

We will be having dinner on the deck at sunset. How romantic!

Rule #3:

For a collection of days (at the weekend [the weekend includes Saturday and Sunday], at Christmas [Christmas period includes Christmas day, Christmas Eve etc])

Most games are held at the weekend.

Here are the rules for using the preposition ‘in‘.

Rule #1:

For months of the year (in February, in April)

They are getting married in March.

Rule #2:

For years (in 1990, in 2015)

I started working at the school in 2010.

Rule #3:

For part of a day (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening) EXCEPTION: at night

I can concentrate better in the morning.

I love listening to the owls at night.

Rule #4:

For longer lengths of time: (in the summer, in the Middle Ages)

He always goes skiing in the winter.

Prepositions of time – ‘on’

Here are the rules for using the preposition ‘on‘.

Rule #1:

For days of the week (on Monday, on Tuesday etc)

I am seeing him on Wednesday.

Rule #2:

For dates (on the 4th of May, on the 26th February)

They got married on the 12th June.

Rule #3:

For specific single days (on my birthday, on New Years Eve, on Labour Day)

I am going to a party on New Years Eve.

Click here to try the prepositions of time exercises.

Prepositions_of_place

Prepositions of place (A1)

Prepositions of place (lesson A1)

Prepositions_of_placePrepositions of place (like all prepositions) can be one of the hardest parts of English to use correctly because the rules are often quite difficult and there are lots of exceptions.

In this lesson, we are looking at the following prepositions of place:

  • at
  • in
  • on

Here are some example sentences using prepositions of place:

  • There is a fly on the table!
  • She lives in France.
  • John is at school right now.

Here are a few rules that will help you use prepositions of place correctly:

Prepositions of place rule #1:

We generally use at to talk about a point or position.

For example:

at the window – She sat at the window, waiting for him to arrive.

at the door – There is someone at the door.

at the end – There is a shop at the end of the street.

at the beginning – We met him at the beginning of the night.

Prepositions of place rule #2:

We generally use in to talk about when something that has three sides or is enclosed.

For example:

in a box – There are some pens in that box over there.

in the house – She is in the house, go in!

in New Zealand – I live in New Zealand.

in a tent – We will be sleeping in a tent all weekend.

Prepositions of place rule #3:

We generally use on to talk about a surface or position on a line.

For example:

on the floor – The dog was asleep on the floor.

on the ceiling – There is a beautiful mural on the ceiling.

on the screen – He couldn’t see clearly because there was dust on his computer screen.

on the page – All the information you need is on page 42.

Example exceptions to prepositions of place rules

Here are some common phrases in English that use prepositions of place but that don’t really fit any rule:

We say on a bus but in a taxi

We say in the armchair but on the settee (sofa)

We say on the left but in the middle

Click here to try the prepositions of place exercises.

superlative_adjectives

Superlative adjectives

Superlative adjectives

superlative_adjectivesWe use superlative adjectives when we are comparing one adjective against more than one other adjective. Examples of superlative adjectives:

  • Of all animals, the cheetah is the fastest.
  • Some people think that English is the most difficult language in the world.
  • In my house, I have to get up the earliest because my job starts at 5 a.m.

Syllables and superlative adjectives

To understand the rules for using superlative adjectives, you will need to know the meaning of a syllable.

A syllable is a single sound. For example, ‘goodbye’ has two syllables – ‘good’ and ‘bye’.

Here are some more examples:

1 syllable words: hot, cold, dry
2 syllable words: happy, tired
3 syllable words: excited, exhausted

 

When making superlative adjectives, there are 6 rules you need to remember:

Superlative adjectives rule 1 of 6:

With adjectives with one syllable, simply add the …..+est

For example:

tall > the tallest

fast > the fastest

high > the highest


Superlative adjectives rule 2 of 6:

BUT if the adjective ends in +y, remove the +y and add the …+iest

For example:

happy > the happiest

angry > the angriest

busy > the busiest

Superlative adjectives rule 3 of 6:

NOTE: Adjectives that already end in +e only have the …+st added.

For example:

nice > the nicest

safe > the safest

late > the latest


Superlative adjectives rule 4 of 6:

We add the most… to words with 3 syllables or more.

For example:

intelligent > the most intelligent

beautiful > the most beautiful

interesting > the most interesting

Superlative adjectives rule 5 of 6

Some 2 syllable adjectives have the +est than and some have the most….

Some 2 syllable adjectives can also be used both ways.

NOTE: 2 syllable adjectives that end in -y, -le, and -er often form the superlative by adding +est.

For example:

honest > the most honest

clever > the most clever OR the cleverest

modern > the most modern


Superlative adjectives rule 6 of 6:

Adjectives that end with a consonant, then a vowel, then a consonant need the consonant doubled.

For example:

big > the biggest (not the bigest)

hot > the hottest (not the hotest)

fat > the fattest (not the fatest)

comparatives

Comparative adjectives

Comparative adjectives

We use comparative adjectives when we are comparing two different things. This lesson covers six rules to help you use the correct comparative adjectives.

comparative adjectivesExamples of comparative adjectives:

  • Dogs are smaller than horses.
  • Learning grammar is more difficult than vocabulary.
  • I have to get up earlier than my classmates because I live far from school.

Syllables and comparative adjectives

To understand the rules for using comparative adjectives, you will need to know the meaning of a syllable.

A syllable is a single sound. For example, ‘goodbye’ has two syllables – ‘good’ and ‘bye’.

Here are some more examples:

1 syllable words: hot, cold, dry
2 syllable words: happy, tired
3 syllable words: excited, exhausted

 

When making comparative adjectives, there are 6 rules you need to remember:

Comparative adjectives rule 1 of 6:

With adjectives with one syllable, simply add +er than

For example:

tall > taller than

fast > faster than

high > higher than


Comparative adjectives rule 2 of 6:

If the adjective ends in +y, remove the -y and add +ier than

For example:

happy > happier than

angry > angrier than

busy > busier than

Comparative adjectives rule 3 of 6:

Adjectives that already end in +e only have +r than added.

For example:

nice > nicer than

safe > safer than

late > later than


Comparative adjectives rule 4 of 6:

We add more…than to words with 3 syllables or more.

For example:

intelligent > more intelligent than

beautiful > more beautiful than

interesting > more interesting than

Comparative adjectives rule 5 of 6

Some 2 syllable adjectives have +er than and some have more…than. Some 2 syllable adjectives can also be used both ways. NOTE: 2 syllable adjectives that end in -y, -le, and -er often form the comparative by adding +er.

For example:

honest > more honest than

clever > more clever than OR cleverer than

modern > more modern than


Comparative adjectives rule 6 of 6:

Adjectives that end with a consonant, then a vowel, then a consonant need the consonant doubled.

For example:

big > bigger than (not biger than)

hot > hotter than (not hoter than)

fat > fatter than (not fater than)

Now test your skills with the comparative adjectives exercises!
stative_dynamic_verbs

Stative and dynamic verbs

Stative and dynamic verbs

stative_and_dynamic_verbsVerbs can be divided into two types: stative and dynamic verbs.

Stative verbs are also known as state verbs and dynamic verbs are also know as action verbs.

Do you know the difference between stative and dynamic verbs?

Do you know about an important grammar rule that applies to stative and dynamic verbs?

Read the information below and see if your ideas are correct!


Differences between stative and dynamic verbs

  • Dynamic verbs describe actions.

For example: to run, to work, to sleep, to eat etc.

  • Stative verbs describe things that are not actions.

For example: stative verbs describe feelings, emotions, senses, thoughts, opinions etc. They often refer to things you cannot actually see people doing.

Examples of stative verbs

Thoughts and opinions:

to agree; to know; to realise; to suppose; to understand; to believe; to remember; to think

Feelings and emotions:

to like; to love; to hate; to dislike; to envy; to mind; to want; to need; to desire;

Senses:

to taste; to smell; to hear; to see

States:

to seem; to belong; to own

Even when we are talking about temporary situations happening now, we generally do not use stative verbs in the continuous form.

For example:
This meat tastes delicious!  Correct
NOT
This meat is tasting deliciousIncorrect

 

Verbs that can be used as stative and dynamic verbs

It is important to note that some verbs can act as both stative and dynamic verbs, depending on their use.

Remember that if you use a stative verb in continuous form, the meaning of what you say will be different!

Here are some examples:

  • This bread tastes good

In this sentence, ‘taste’ is used as a stative verb (opinion of the food / the sense of taste).

  • The chef is tasting the dinner

In this sentence, ‘taste’ is used as a dynamic verb; it is describing the action of the chef checking the quality of the food.

  • I see John! Look there he is!

In this sentence, ‘see’ is used as a stative verb (the sense of sight).

  • I am seeing Sue tomorrow.

In this sentence, ‘see’ is used as an active verb (speaker is using present continuous for a future plan).

present perfect

Present perfect simple

Present perfect simple

present perfect simple

Present perfect simple tense examples:
I have cleaned my shoes.
He has gone to America.
I have travelled through Asia, but I haven’t been to Africa.

Uses of the present perfect simple:

1. To talk about something completed some time in the (recent) past that has an effect now
2. To talk about an experience we have had in our lives.

Present perfect simple form:

have / has + [3rd form of the verb / past participle]

 

 

Present perfect simple use #1:

We can use present perfect simple to talk about something completed in the past that has an effect now.

  • I have cleaned my shoes.

This tells us that:

a) the speaker cleaned his/her shoes in the past
b) that there is a present effect of this – probably that they are now clean.

  • I haven’t finished my homework!

NOTE: you cannot use present perfect simple with a specific time in the past – you have to use past simple.

e.g. I didn’t finish my homework last night. NOT  I haven’t finished my homework last night.

Present perfect simple use #2:

We can use present perfect simple to talk about an experience we have had in our lives.

Have you ever visited New Zealand?”
“No, I haven’t” been there yet. I have been to Australia though!

“I have eaten tofu but I have never eaten crocodile meat”

NOTE:

American English does not use this form of the present perfect. In American English, the past simple is used instead.

“Have you ever visited New Zealand?” (British English)
“Did you ever visit New Zealand?” (American English)

‘Ever’, ‘never’, ‘yet’ with present perfect simple

Have you ever…..?

Used for questions about experience up to now.

Example:

  • Have you ever taken an over night train?
  • Has he ever met your wife?

Have you…… yet?

Used for questions  and negative sentences about experience up to now.

  • Have you seen that new film yet?
  • I haven’t asked him yet.

NOT: Have you ever visited New York yet.

Never

Used for negative sentences about experience up to now.

I have never climbed a mountain.

I have never spoken to her.

NOT: I have never drunk champagne yet.